Using ejs as template-engine within express.js default configuration can be very annoying – you have to pass a dedicated variable set to each response.render() call. But for a lot of tasks it is required to use some kind of global variables in your templates, e.g. page title, resources and much more.

The most reliable solution is a custom template renderer which invokes ejs in the way you want.

Custom Template Engine/Renderer Function#

const _ejs = require('ejs');

// example: global config
const _config = require('../config.json');

// custom ejs render function
module.exports = function render(filename, payload={}, cb){
    // some default page vars
    payload.page = payload.page || {};
    payload.page.slogan = payload.page.slogan || _config.slogan;
    payload.page.title = payload.page.title || _config.title;
    payload.page.brandname = payload.page.brandname || _config.name;

    // resources
    payload.resources = payload.resources || {};

    // render file
    // you can also pass some ejs lowlevel options
    _ejs.renderFile(filename, payload, {
        
    }, cb);
}

Usage#

const _express = require('express');
const _webapp = _express();
const _path = require('path');
const _tplengine = require('./my-template-engine');

// set the view engine to ejs
_webapp.set('views', _path.join(__dirname, '../views'));
_webapp.engine('ejs', _tplengine);
_webapp.set('view engine', 'ejs');

// your controller
_webapp.get('/', function(req, res){
   // render the view using additional variables
   res.render('myview', {
     x: 1,
     y: 2
   });
});

 

Use EnllighterJS with marked

markdown, gfm, javascript, nodejs

marked is one of the most popular markdown parsers written in javascript. It’s quite easy to integrate EnlighterJS within, just pass a custom highlight function as option.

Promised based highlighting#

File: markdown.js

const _marked = require('marked');
const _renderer = new _marked.Renderer();

// escape html specialchars
function escHtml(s){
    return s.replace(/&/g, '&')
            .replace(/"/g, '"')
            .replace(/</g, '&lt;')
            .replace(/>/g, '&gt;');
}

// EnlighterJS Codeblocks
_renderer.code = function(code, lang){
    return `<pre data-enlighter-language="${lang}">${escHtml(code)}</pre>`;
};

const _options = {
    // gfm style line breaks
    breaks: true,

    // custom renderer
    renderer: _renderer
};

// promise proxy
function render(content){
    return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
        // async rendering
        _marked(content, _options, function(e, html){
            if (e){
                reject(e);
            }else{
                resolve(html);
            }
        });
    });
}

module.exports = {
    render: render
};

 

Usage#

const _markdown = require('markdown');

// fetch markdown based content
const rawCode = getMarkdownContent(..);

// render content
const html = await _markdown.render(rawCode);

 

Comparing the content of two directories binary-safe is a common used feature especially for data synchronization tasks. You can easily implement a simple compare algorithm by generating the sha256 checksums of each file – this is not a high-performance solution but even works on large files!

const _fs = require('fs-magic');

// compare directoy contents based on sha256 hash tables
async function compareDirectories(dir1, dir2){
    // fetch file lists
    const [files1, dirs1] = await _fs.scandir(dir1, true, true);
    const [files2, dirs2] = await _fs.scandir(dir2, true, true);

    // num files, directories equal ?
    if (files1.length != files2.length){
        throw new Error('The directories containing a different number of files ' + files1.length + '/' + files2.length);
    }
    if (dirs1.length != dirs2.length){
        throw new Error('The directories containing a different number of subdirectories ' + dirs1.length + '/' + dirs2.length);
    }

    // generate file checksums
    const hashes1 = await Promise.all(files1.map(f => _fs.sha256file(f)));
    const hashes2 = await Promise.all(files2.map(f => _fs.sha256file(f)));

    // convert arrays to objects filename=>hash
    const lookup = {};
    for (let i=0;i<hashes2.length;i++){
        // normalized filenames
        const f2 = files2[i].substr(dir2.length);
        
        // assign
        lookup[f2] = hashes2[i];
    }

    // compare dir1 to dir2
    for (let i=0;i<hashes1.length;i++){
        // normalized filenames
        const f1 = files1[i].substr(dir1.length);

        // exists ?
        if (!lookup[f1]){
            throw new Error('File <' + files1[i] + '> does not exist in <' + dir2 + '>');
        }

        // hash valid ?
        if (lookup[f1] !== hashes1[i]){
            throw new Error('File Checksum of <' + files1[i] + '> does not match <' + files2[i] + '>');
        }
    }

    return true;
}

await compareDirectories('/tmp/data0', '/tmp/data1');

 

TravisCI: Use custom Node.js version within container based builds

nodejs binary, custom version, second language

Sometime you may need a special version of Node.js or a recent version within a foreign build environment. But in the modern container-based infrastructure it is not possible to use apt to install custom packets which are not whitelisted. As an workaround, you can download pre-build binaries via wget into your build directory and add the bin/ dir to your PATH. This allows you to use any pre-build third party software without installation.

Example: PERL with javascript testcases#

os: linux

language: perl

perl:
  - "5.24"
  - "5.14"

# skip perl (cpanm) dependency management
# install nodejs into home folder
install: 
  # fetch latest nodejs archive
  - wget https://nodejs.org/dist/v8.8.1/node-v8.8.1-linux-x64.tar.gz -O /tmp/nodejs.tgz
  # unzip
  - tar -xzf /tmp/nodejs.tgz
  # add nodejs binaries to path - this has to be done here!
  - export PATH=$PWD/node-v8.8.1-linux-x64/bin:$PATH
  # show node version
  - node -v
  - npm -v
  # install node dependencies
  - npm install

script:
  # syntax check
  - perl -Mstrict -Mdiagnostics -cw rsnapshot
  # run javascript based tests
  - npm test

 

 

TravisCI: Setup MySQL Tables+Data before running Tests

test, mysql, mariadb, travis, continuous integration, before_install

In case your projects make use of external databases like MySQL/MariaDB you need to setup your continuous integration tests with dedicated testcases including application specific database structures. This requires some initial steps to load the database dump before starting the tests. Thanks to travisci.org you do’t need to do this kind of stuff within your application – just use the test configuration!

Travis+MySQL Server#

First of all, we add MySQL Server as service within our .travis.yml file. This initializes a dedicated database instance for testing. Additionally we hook into the before_install action to initialize our database structure. In this example all SQL commands are loaded from an external file located in our test directory.

language: node_js
node_js:
  - "7"
  - "7.6"
  - "8"
services:
  - mysql
before_install:
  - mysql -u root --password="" < test/travis.sql

Initial Database Setup#

Our Test Database structure is definied within a dedicated SQL file in test/travis.sql. It contains all necessary commands to add a new user, create demo database, create demo tables and finally add some test-data.

# Create Testuser
CREATE USER 'dev'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'dev';
GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP ON *.* TO 'dev'@'localhost';

# Create DB
CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `demo` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
USE `demo`;

# Create Table
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `users` (
  `user_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `created_on` timestamp NULL DEFAULT NULL,
  `modified_on` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  `username` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  `salt` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `password` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  `email` varchar(150) DEFAULT NULL,
  `firstname` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  `lastname` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  `dob` date DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

ALTER TABLE `users`
  ADD PRIMARY KEY (`user_id`);

ALTER TABLE `users`
  MODIFY `user_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT;

# Add Data

Node.js: Log static file requests with expressjs serve-static middleware

nodejs, express, static, logfile, analytics, statistics, download counter

In most cases, every web-application requires some kind of request logging. Especially package downloads will be counted for statistic purpose. By using expressjs, static content is served by the middleware module serve-static.

To count the successfull requests handled by this module, you can hook into the setHeaders callback which is invoked each time a file is ready for delivering (file exists, file is accessible).

Example#

// utility
const _path = require('path');

// expressjs
const _express = require('express');
let _webapp = _express();

// your statistic module
const _downloadStats = require('./download-counter');

// serve static package files
_webapp.use('/downloads', _express.static(_path.join(__dirname, 'downloads'), {
    // setHeaders is only called on success (stat available/file found)
    setHeaders: function(res, path, stat){
        // count request: full-path, file-stats, client-ip
        _downloadStats(path, stat, res.req.connection.remoteAddress);
    }
}));

 

systemd: Start your Firewall before network interfaces coming up

linux debian, ubuntu, systemd, networking, uptables

There are a serveral “tutorials” and code snippets out there but they wont work on modern systemd versions and may cause fatal errors! In case you want to start your firewall before the network interfaces will be initialized, you have to hook into the special systemd target network-pre.target. It is a passive target which is invoked before any network services has been started.

Additionally, you have to explicit set the DefaultDependencies=no option – otherwise systemd automatically adds dependency of the type After=basic.target to your service and your firewall is invoked AFTER networking has been started!

Systemd Service File#

The following service file assumes that your firewall script is located in /usr/sbin/myfirewall.sh

[Unit]
Description=MyFirewall

# Start before Network Interfaces coming up
Before=network-pre.target
Wants=network-pre.target
After=local-fs.target

# Do not start after basic.target!
DefaultDependencies=no

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/myfirewall start
ExecStop=/usr/sbin/myfirewall stop

# Just Execute the shell script
Type=oneshot
RemainAfterExit=yes

Debugging Service Startup#

The systemd-analyze utility provides a really cool way to show the system startup. Finally you should verify that your firewall is executed before networking has started!

# dump the service startup
systemd-analyze plot > /root/systemd_startup.svg

Example#

Startup of the Firewall and Networking

As of WordPress 4.6 it is possible to hook into the wp_send_new_user_notifications action to disable the new user notifications send to site admins or the new user.

// The Parameter "$behaviour" can be set to:
// "none" (no notifications are send); 
// "default" (no changes); 
// "admin" (notifications send to admin only); 
// "user" (notification send to user only); 
// "both" (notifications send to admin + user)
public static function limitNewRegistrationNotifications($behaviour){
    // do nothing
    if ($behaviour == 'default'){
        return;
    }

    // handle user registrations (self registered users)
    remove_action('register_new_user', 'wp_send_new_user_notifications');

    // new users added via wp-admin are created using add_user() -> edit_user() chain, NOT register_new_user()
    // @see https://developer.wordpress.org/reference/functions/add_user/
    remove_action('edit_user_created_user', 'wp_send_new_user_notifications', 10, 2);

    // notifications disabled ?
    if ($behaviour == 'none'){
        return;
    }

    // add custom callback and override the $notify setting with custom behaviour
    add_action('register_new_user', function($user_id) use ($behaviour){
        // trigger notification
        wp_new_user_notification($user_id, null, $behaviour);
    });
    add_action('edit_user_created_user', function($user_id) use ($behaviour){
        // trigger notification
        wp_new_user_notification($user_id, null, $behaviour);
    });
}

 

This Tweak is available as part of the Tweakr WordPress Plugin.

WordPress: Get Raw Document Title without Blog Name

document_title_parts, wp_get_document_title

Sometimes it is necessary to retrieve the current Document Title (used in the title tag) without the blog name or separators. As of WordPress 4.4 the wp_get_document_title() function become available which should be used to fetch the title – unfortunately it doesn’t accept any arguments and it is not possible to access the pure page title directly. Instead we can hook into the document_title_parts filter which allows us to access all title parts (title, page, tagline, site).

Workaround#

// workaround to retrieve the document title
function getDocumentTitle(){
    // temporary title
    $documentTitle = 'Unknown';

    // extractor function
    $extractor = function($parts) use (&$documentTitle){
        if (isset($parts['title'])){
            $documentTitle = $parts['title'];
        }
        return $parts;
    };

    // add filter to retrieve the page title
    add_filter('document_title_parts', $extractor);

    // trigger title generation
    wp_get_document_title();

    // remove filter
    remove_filter('document_title_parts', $extractor);

    // return result
    return $documentTitle;
}

 

Currently (v380.64_2) there is no out-of-the-box mechanism to setup persistent crontabs which survives a system reboot. But there is a simple workaround availabe.

Your Crontab File#

First of all, create a standard crontab file and store it in your persistent JFFS partition. In this example /jffs/configs/cron

# Syntax
# MM HH DayOfMonth Month DayOfWeek <action>

# Run Backup Script at 4am
0 4 * * * /jffs/scripts/backup.sh

Setup Crontabs on startup#

To load the crontab list on boot, add the following line to your init-start script in /jffs/scripts/init-start

cp /jffs/configs/cron /var/spool/cron/crontabs/admin

That’s it!